进一步阅读书目
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进一步阅读书目
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关于经济,参见Alan Harvey, Economic Expansion in the Byzantine Empire (900–1200) (Cambridge, 1989) 及其非常重要的论文'The land and taxation in the reign of Alexios I Komnenos: The evidence of Theophylakt of Ochrid', Revue des Etudes Byzantines 51 (1993), pp. 139–54。Michael Metcalf的Coinage in South-Eastern Europe (Oxford, 1979) 仍然属于必读书,他的文章'The reformed gold coinage of Alexius I Comnenus', in Hamburger Beiträge zur Numismatik, vol. 16 (1962), pp. 271–84也是。关于11世纪时货币的贬值,参见Cécile Morrisson, 'La Dévaluation de la monnaie byzantine au XIe siècle', Travaux et Mémoires 6 (1976), pp. 3–29.
The Oxford History of Byzantium,由Cyril Mango主编(Oxford,2002)以及the Cambridge History of Byzantine Empire,c.500-1492,由Jonathan Shepard主编(Cambridge,2008)提供了关于拜占庭帝国概况的导引,非常清楚,也总能引人深思。Angeliki Laiou's The Economic History of Byzantium, From the Seventh Through the Fifteenth Century, 3 vols. (Washington, DC, 2002) 也很出色,甚至是里程碑式的。
涉及这次远征的一些具体事宜,也能做出个别推荐。Logistics of Warfare in the Age of the Crusades,edited by John Pryor(Aldershot,2006)是很好的阅读起点。另可参见Alan Murray 'The army of Godfrey of Bouillon 1096–9: Structure and dynamics of a contingent on the First Crusade', Revue Belge de Philologie et d'histoire 70 (1992), pp. 30–29; Jonathan Riley-Smith, 'First Crusaders and the costs of crusading', in Michael Goodrich, Sophia Menache and Syvlie Schein, Cross Cultural Convergences in the Crusader Period (New York, 1995), pp. 237–57; Matthew Bennett, 'Travel and transport of the Crusades', Medieval History 4 (1994), pp. 91–101; John Nesbitt, 'The rate of march of crusading armies in Europe: A study and computation', Traditio 19 (1963), pp. 167– 82都提出了非常敏锐的问题,一如Karl Leyser 'Money and supplies on the First Crusade', in Communications and Power, pp. 83–94以及Sue Edgington 'Medical knowledge in the crusading armies: The evidence of Albert of Aachen and others' in Malcolm Barber (ed.), The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith and Caring for the Sick (Aldershot, 1994), pp. 320–6.
关于第一次十字军东征历史的撰写,参见James Powell, 'Myth, legend, propaganda, history: The First Crusade, 1140–c.1300', in Autour de la Première Croisade, pp. 127–41, ,以及Nicholas Paul的两篇出色的文章'Crusade, memory and regional politics in twelfth-century Amboise', Journal of Medieval History 31 (2005), pp. 127–41和'A warlord's wisdom: Literacy and propaganda at the time of the First Crusade', Speculum 85 (2010), pp. 534–66.
对犹太人的屠杀在Robert Chazan, European Jewry and the First Crusade (Berkeley, 1987) 以及Gerd Mentgen, 'Die Juden des Mittelrhein-Mosel-Gebietes im Hochmittelalter unter besonder Berücksichtigung der Kreuzzugsverfolgungen', Monatshefte für Evangelische Kirchengeschichte des Rheinlandes 44 (1995), pp. 37–75. 中得到了研究。Eva Haverkamp的Hebräische Berichte über die Judenverfolgungen während des Ersten Kreuzzugs (Hanover, 2005) 如今是关于1096年大屠杀的标杆作品。
关于隐修者彼得,参见M. D. Coupe, 'Peter the Hermit, a reassessment' Nottingham Medieval Studies 31 (1987), pp.37–45, Ernest Blake and Colin Morris, 'A hermit goes to war: Peter and the origins of the First Crusade', Studies in Church History 22 (1985), pp. 79–107, Jean Flori, Pierre l'Eremite et la Première Croisade (Paris, 1999), and Jay Rubenstein, 'How, or how much, to re-evaluate Peter the Hermit', in Susan Ridyard (ed.), The Medieval Crusade (Woodbridge, 2004) pp. 53–70。关于各位十字军领导人的生平www.99lib•net研究很容易产生疏漏,导致抨击,因此近年来一直都不怎么受欢迎。不过,Ralph Yewdale的Bohemond I:Prince of Antioch(Princeton,1924)具有持久的魅力。Jean Flori的Bohémond d'Antioche: Chevalier d'aventure (Paris, 2007) 则更加反映近期研究现状。关于图卢兹的雷蒙,John and Laurita Hill, Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse (Syracuse, 1962)。关于诺曼底的罗伯特,William Aird's recent Robert 'Curthose', Duke of Normandy (c.1050–1134) (Woodbridge, 2008)。关于布永的戈弗雷,Pierre Aubé, Godefroy de Bouillon (Paris, 1985).

关于第一次十字军东征

Ferdinand Chalandon's Essai sur le règne d'Alexis I Comnène (Paris, 1900) 至今仍是最新的关于阿莱克修斯统治期的专著,也仍然非常明晰,非常有用。1989 Belfast symposium的工作论文收录在Mullettand Smythe所编的Alexios I Komnenos中,非常不错,包含了一系列发人深思的重要论文,最重要的有Magdalino、Sheparrd、Macrides和Angold的。我也曾撰文挑战下列观点:阿莱克修斯皇帝的家族是其统治的基础,我强调了其家族核心成员之间在第一次十字军东征前夕的不谐举动。P. Frankopan, 'Kinship and the distribution of power in Komnenian Byzantium', English Historical Review 495 (2007), pp. 1–34.
诺曼人对意大利南部的征服在Hartmut Hoffmann的'Die Anfänge der Normannen in Süditalien', in Quellen und Forschungen aus Italienischen Archiven und Bibiliotheken, 47 (1967), pp. 95–144中得到了出色的勾勒,不过,Graham Loud具有开创性的研究在近些年推动了相关研究,例如The Latin Church in Norman Italy(Cambridge,2007)以及'Coinage, wealth and plunder in the age of Robert Guiscard', English Historical Review, 114 (1999), pp. 815–43. 另见他的The Age of Robert Guiscard: Southern Italy and the Norman Conquest(Singapore,2000)。Jean-Marie Martin的La Pouille du VIe au XIIe siècles (Rome, 1993) 仍然是东南意大利研究的标杆。Paul Oldfield的近期文章'Urban government in southern Italy, c.1085–c.1127', English Historical Review 122 (2007), pp. 579–608也提供了令人感兴趣的关于诺曼人对意大利南部统治的洞见,他的著作City and Community in Norman Italy(Cambridge,2009)也是如此。
关于君士坦丁堡,有一些非常不错的文集。参见Cyril Mango's Studies on Constantinople (Aldershot 1993), and his Constantinople and its Hinterland (Aldershot, 1995) (with Gilbert Dagron). Paul Magdalino's Studies on the History and Topography of Byzantine Constantinople (Aldershot, 2007) 提供了很多原创性的富于启发的观点。关于综述性的研究,参见Jonathan Harris, Constantinple: Capital of Byzantium( London,2007)。
关于1099年在耶路撒冷创建的东方王国,Joshua Prawer的The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem: European Colonialism in the Middle Ages (New York, 1972); Jean Richard, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (London, 1979); Alan Murray, The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History 1099–1125 (Oxford, 2000)。关于安条克,参见Thomas Asbridge's excellent The Creation of the Principality of Antioch 1098–1130 (Woodbridge, 2000)。另可参见Christopher MacEvitt近期非常重要的作品The Crusades and the Christian World of the East: Rough Tolerance (Philadelphia, 2008) 。关于耶路撒冷牧首,参见Michael Matzke, Daibert von Pisa: Zwischen Pisa, Papst und erstem Kreuzzug (Sigmaringen, 1998).

拜占庭及其邻人们

关于11世纪后半叶,最好的二手作品是Jean-Claude Cheynet的Pouvoir et contestations à Byzance 963–1210 (Paris, 1990). Alexander Kazhdan关于拜占庭贵族的研讨论文有意大利文版L'aristocrazia bizantina: dal principio dell'XI alla fine del XII secolo (tr. Silvia Ronchey, Palermo, 1997) 。Jonathan Shepard优秀的文章'Aspects of Byzantine attitudes and policy towards the West in the 10th and 11th Centuries', Byzantinische Forschungen 13 (1988), pp. 67–118极好地介绍了拜占庭人对外国人的态度。另见同一作者的'The uses of the Franks in 11th Century Byzantium', Anglo-Norman Studies 15 (1992), pp. 275–305, '"Father" or "Scorpion"? Style and substance in Alexios' diplomacy', in Mullett and Smythe, Alexios, pp. 68–132, and 'Cross九-九-藏-书-网-purposes: Alexius Comnenus and the First Crusade', in Phillips, First Crusade, pp. 107–29。Krinje Ciggaar的Western Travellers to Constantinople: The West & Byzantium, 962–1204 (Leiden, 1996) 表明当时这座城市是怎样一座大都会。
西方关于十字军东征的各种叙事文献,比较好的阅读起点是Colin Morris, "The Gesta Francorum as Narrative History", Reading Medieval Studies 19(1993),pp.55-72。不过,更晚近的可见John France's 'The anonymous Gesta Francorum and the Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem of Raymond of Aguilers and the Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere of Peter Tudebode: An analysis of the textual relationship between primary sources for the First Crusade', in J. France and W. Zajac (eds.), The Crusades and their Sources: Essays presented to Bernard Hamilton (Aldershot, 1998), pp. 39–69. 另外可参见France's 'The use of the anonymous Gesta Francorum in the early twelfth-century sources for the First Crusade', in Alan Murray, From Clermont to Jerusalem: The Crusades and Crusader Societies (Turnhout, 1998). pp. 29–42以及更近期的Jay Rubenstein, 'What is the Gesta Francorum and who was Peter Tudebode?', Revue Mabillon 16 (2005), pp. 179–204.
除了前面已经提到的概述第一次十字军东征的作品外,这里将增加一些关注这次远征具体各个方面的作品。关于克莱蒙大公会议和教皇乌尔班二世1095-1096年在法兰西的行程,参见André Vauchez (ed.), Le Concile de Clermont de 1095 et l'appel à la Croisade: Actes du Colloque Universitaire International de Clermont-Ferrand (Rome, 1997) 。众多学者对十字军的传道动员进行了很好的阐述,比如Penny Cole, The Preaching of the Crusades to the Holy Land (Cambridge, Mass., 1991) ,不过也可以参考H. E. J. Cowdrey, 'Pope Urban II's preaching of the First Crusade', History 55 (1970), pp. 177–88以及Robert Somerville, 'The Council of Clermont and the First Crusade', Studia Gratiana 20 (1976), pp. 323–7.
阿莱克修斯一世写给佛兰德斯的罗贝尔的信件完全被视为伪作,参见Peter Schreiner, 'Der Brief des Alexios I Komnenos an den Grafen Robert von Flandern und das Problem gefälschter byzantinischer Kaiserschreiben in den westlichen Quellen', and Christian Gastgeber, 'Das Schreiben Alexios I. Komnenos an Robert I. Flandern. Sprachliche Untersuchung', 均收录在Giuseppe de Gregorio and Otto Kresten (eds.), Documenti medievali Greci e Latini: Studi Comparativi (Spoleto, 1998), pp. 111–40, 141–85,不过也可参见Carole Sweetenham, 'Two letters calling Christians on Crusade', in Robert the Monk's History of the First Crusade (Aldershot, 2005), pp. 215–18. 不过这些文章都认为11世纪90年代初期拜占庭帝国在小亚细亚所处的地位是有利而健康的。因此也要注意Michel de Waha, 'La lettre d'Alexis Comnène à Robert Ier le Frison', Byzantion 47 (1977), pp. 113–25.
关于参加东征者的响应和动机,参见Jonathan Riley-Smith, 'The motives of the earliest crusaders and the settlement of Latin Palestine, 1095–1100', English Historical Review 98 (1983), pp. 721–36;他的'The idea of Crusading in the Charters of Early Crusaders', in Vauchez, Concile de Clermont, pp. 155–66也很有用,另外还有Christopher Tyerman, 'Who went on crusades to the Holy Land?', in Horns of Hattin, pp. 13–26. Marcus Bull's Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade: The Limousin and Gascony (Oxford, 1993) ,提供了关于法兰西一个地区情况的引人入胜又细致入微的描述。另可参见John France, 'Les origines de la Première Croisade: un nouvel examen', in Balard, Autour de la Première Croisade, pp. 43–56.

第一次十字军东征

关于意大利城市国家,参见Marie-Louise Favreau-Lilie, Die Italiener im Heiligen Land vom ersten Kreuzzug bis zum Tode Heinrichs von Champagne (1098–1197) (Amsterdam, 1988;关于它们与拜占庭帝国的关系,Ralph-Johan99lib.netnes Lilie's Handel und Politik zwischen dem byzantinischen Reich und den italienischen Kommunen Venedig, Pisa und Genua in der Epoche der Komnenen und der Angeloi (1081–1204) (Amsterdam, 1984) 仍然立论坚实。
关于君士坦丁堡与阿莱克修斯的关系,John Pryor的 'The oath of the leaders of the Crusade to the Emperor Alexius Comnenus: Fealty, homage',   Parergon 2 (1984), pp. 111–41阐述得很合理,一如Ralph-Johannes Lilie, 'Noch einmal zu dem Thema "Byzanz und die Kreuzfahrerstaaten"', Poikila Byzantina 4 (1984), pp. 121–74。不过,绝对必读的是Jonathan Shepard的'When Greek meets Greek: Alexius Comnenus and Bohemund in 1097–8', Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 12 (1988), pp. 185–277.
Claude Cahen影响深远的 'La première pénétration turque en Asie Mineure', Byzantion 18 (1948), pp. 5–67主导了对11世纪的小亚细亚状况的评估,勾勒了曼齐刻尔特战役前后突厥人威胁的增加。Jean-Claude Cheynet提供了对其观点的第一次重要修正,见'Manzikert: un désastre militaire?', Byzantion 50 (1980), pp. 410–38。更晚近些,同一位历史学家又用'La résistance aux Turcs en Asie Mineure entre Mantzikert et la Première Croisade', in Eupsykhia: Mélanges offerts à Hélène Ahrweiler 2 vols. (Paris, 1998), 1, pp. 131–47更进一步提出挑战。这些都提供了对突厥人和小亚细亚局势非常重要的重估。对考古证据的依赖,以及对文本的重视,在Clive Foss的作品中体现得很明显,包括'The defences of Asia Minor against the Turks', Greek Orthodox Theological Review 27 (1982), pp. 145–205。在斯特洛比罗斯 、萨加拉索斯 、以弗所和其他一些地方出土的新证据继续不断挑战着关于安纳托利亚的突厥人定居点的本质、范围和延续时间的既有观点。关于君士坦丁堡以北地区不断滋长的对拜占庭的压力,参见Paul Stephenson, Byzantium's Balkan Frontier (Cambridge, 2000) ,它补充完善并超越了研究该地区的学者先前的著作。
对第一次十字军东征前夕的欧洲的研究涌现了诸多出色的作品。关于教廷,H. E. J. Cowdrey's Pope Gregory VII, 1073–1085 (Oxford, 1998) and Alfons Becker's magisterial Papst Urban II 1088–99, 2 vols. (Stuttgart, 1964–88) 为必读作品。 Cowdrey's The Age of Abbot Desiderius: Montecassino, the Papacy and the Normans in the Eleventh and Early Twelfth Centuries (Oxford, 1983) 很重要,同样的还有Josef Deér's Papsttum und Normannen: Untersuchungen zu ihren lehnsrechtlichen und kirchenpolitischen Beziehungen (Cologne, 1972)。Ian Robinson的The Papacy 1073-1198(Cambridge,1990)提供了关于罗马教廷在这一时期经历的斗争的评述,相当令人信服。该作者的Henry IV of Germany,1056-1106(Cambridge,1999)在讲述欧洲11世纪末遭遇的种种危机上非常出色。Timothy Reuter的文集,由Janet Nelson编纂的Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities(Cambridge, 2006),以及Karl Leyser,由Reuter编纂的,收录于Communications and Power in Medieval Europe: The Gregorian Revolution and Beyond(London,1994)所论述的非常发人深省。
当代研究拜占庭和阿拉伯的学者却令人惊讶地极少关注这个主题。一个例外是Lonathan Harris清晰而有用的Byzantium and the Crusades (London, 2003)。不容错过的是Paul Magdalino的'The Byzantine background to the First Crusade', in Canadian Institute of Balkan Studies (Toronto, 1996), pp. 3–38。同样地还有Ralph-Johannes Lilie就拜占庭与十字军之间关系展开的精彩研究,该书首先在1981年以德文出版,后有了很好的英译本Byzantium and the Crusader states 1096-1204 (tr. Morris and Ridings, Oxford, 1993)。Carole Hillenbrand的The Crusades, Islamic Perspectives (Edinburgh, 1999) 从提供了东方看待西方的视角方面非常有用。
与其列出一份包罗万象的多达2000多本书和文章的参考文献,我觉得为读者就如何入门提点建议会更加有用,让他们有兴趣大致了解第一次十字军概貌,或这场远征的某些具体方面,我会尽可能给出二手文献的英文版本,但有些时候,列出其他语言的专著和文章似乎不可避免。

阿莱克修斯一世·科穆宁的统治期

关于博希蒙德征讨拜占庭帝国,参见John Rowe, 'Paschal II, Bohemund of Antioch and the Byzantine Empire', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 49 (1966), pp. 165–202。另可参见Luigi Russo的 'Il viaggio di Boemundo d'Altavilla in Francia', Archivio storico italiano 603 (2005), pp. 3–42.
关于11世纪末出现的千禧主义,参见Hannes Möhring, Der Weltkaiser der Endzeit: Entstehung Wandel und Wirkung einer tausendjähri99lib.netgen Weissagung (Stuttgart, 2000) ,以及Brett Whalen, Dominion of God: Christendom and Apocalypse in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). 关于更多就第一次十字军东征的起源与影响的专门研究,参见Michele Gabriele, 'Against the enemies of Christ: The role of Count Emicho in the Anti-Jewish Violence of the First Crusade', in M. Frassetto (ed.), Christian Attitudes towards the Jews in the Middle Ages: A Casebook (Abingdon, 2007), pp. 61–82以及Robert Chazan, '"Let not a remnant or a residue escape": Millenarian enthusiasm in the First Crusade', Speculum 84 (2009), pp. 289–313.

概论

11世纪末的拜占庭帝国

对《阿莱克修斯纪》的编年进行最成功解构的作品是Iakov Liubarskii 的'Zamechaniya k khronologii XI Knigi "Aleksiada" Anny Komninoi', Vizantiiskii Vremennik 24 (1963), pp. 46–56,他探讨了《阿莱克修斯纪》第十一卷中存在的问题。Lilie在Byzantium and the Crusader States一书的附录中肯定并推进了相关研究,pp.46-56。文本其他地方对某些事件时间上的误置,由David Gress-Wright, 'Bogomilism in Constantinople', Byzantion 47 (1977), pp. 163–85; P. Gautier, 'Discours de Théophylacte de Bulgarie', Revue des Etudes Byzantines 20 (1962), esp. pp. 99–103; J. Gouillard, 'L'Abjuration du moine Nil le Calabrais', Travaux et Mémoires 2 (1968), pp. 290–303提出来了。Liubarskii's 'Ob istochnikakh "Aleksiady" Anny Komninoi', Vizantiiskii Vremennik 25 (1965), pp. 99–120仍然是最好的确认安娜·科穆宁娜所使用文献来源的作品,并且也举出了其他一些例子指出《阿莱克修斯纪》在编年上存在错误。我们需要一部全新的重头作品来全面研究安娜·科穆宁娜作品中就事件历史序列存在的种种问题。
关于拜占庭帝国与诺曼人的关系,参见Huguette Taviani-Carozzi, La Terreur du monde – Robert Guiscard et la conquête normande en Italie (Paris, 1997)。William McQueen的文章'Relations between the Normans and Byzantium 1071–1112', Byzantion 56 (1986), pp. 427–76以及Matthew Bennettde 的 'Norman naval activity in the Mediterranean c.1060–1108', Anglo-Norman Studies 15 (1992), pp. 41–58提供了关于对拜占庭帝国的进攻颇有助益的检视。
为纪念克莱蒙大公会议召开900周年,召开了一系列会议,多部文集收录了会上众多顶尖学者提交的论文。其中最好的是Jonathan Phillips' The First Crusade: Origins and Impact (Manchester, 1997), Michel Balard's Autour de la Première Croisade (Paris, 1996), and Alan Murray's From Clermont to Jerusalem: The Crusades and Crusader Societies (Turnhout, 1998). 其他值得一提的文集包括Crusade and Settlement, edited by Peter Edbury (Cardiff, 1985), and The Experience of Crusading, edited by Marcus Bull, Norman Housely and Jonathan Phillips, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 2003)。另可参考Thomas Madden精心编选的一批顶尖学者的论文集,The Crusades (Oxford, 2002)。Alan Murray所著的关于第一次十字军东征的文献综述也很有价值。
Steven Runciman的Eastern Schism: A Study of the Papacy and the Eastern Churches During the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries(Oxford, 1955)仍能提供关于1054年发生的种种事件的清晰叙述,但Henry Chadwick的East and West: The Making of a Rift in the Church: From Apostolic Times Until the Council of Florence (Oxford, 2003) 将大裂教放置在了更为宽广的背景下考量。相关的也值得一看的是Aristeides Papadakis and John Meyendorff, The Christian East and the Rise of the Papacy: The Church 1071–1453 (New York, 1994) 以及最重要的Axel Bayer's Spaltung der Christenheit: Das sogenannte Morgenländische Schisma von 1054 (Cologne, 2002). Tia Kolbaba的The Byzantine Lists: Errors of the Latins (Urbana, 2000)对我们了解东方和西方教会之间的对抗很有帮助。关于叙任权之争,参见Ute-Renata Blumenthal's The Investiture Controversy: Church and Monarchy from the Ninth to the Twelfth Century (Philadelphia, 1988) 以及Gerd Tellenbach, The Western Church from the Tenth to the Early Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1993).
Anna Comnena by Georgina Buckler(Oxford, 1929)至今仍是关于《阿莱克修斯纪》的唯一专著,其对该书文本构成的讨论非九九藏书网常出色,但在文本解释方面略逊色。Belfast colloquium on Alexios I中的一篇重要论文非常有必要读,提出了关于其文本构成的艰深问题。James Howard-Johnston收录在Margaret Mullett和Dion Smythe (eds.)的Alexios I Komnenos (Belfast, 1996) 中的文章非常重要,应该与另一本由Thalia Gouma-Peterson编辑的虽然薄但很有价值的文集Anna Komnene and Her Times(New York, 2000)一道阅读。John France's 'Anna Comnena, the Alexiad and the First Crusade', Reading Medieval Studies 10 (1984), pp. 20–38提供了西方十字军对这个文本的观点。

第一次十字军东征时期的教廷与西欧

关于阿莱克修斯一世及其继任者时期的军队状况,John Birkenmeier,The Development of the Komnenian Army: 1081–1180 (Leiden, 2002), 不过Armin Hohlweg所著Beiträge zur Verwaltunsgeschichte des oströmischen Reiches unter den Komnenen (Munich, 1965) 也仍然有不少灼见。Paul Magdalino的The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos 1143–1180 (Cambridge, 1993) 很值得一读,不仅可了解阿莱克修斯的继任者们,也能作为背景来了解《阿莱克修斯纪》的著述过程。关于这一点,另可参见Paul Stephenson, 'The Alexiad as a source for the Second Crusade', Journal of Medieval History 45 (2003), pp. 41–54.
十字军东征得到了历史学家们的高度关注,在近些年也方兴未艾。Christopher Tyerman, God's War: A New History of the Crusades (London, 2006), Jonathan Phillips, Holy Warriors: A Modern History of the Crusades (London, 2009), 和 Thomas Asbridge, The Crusades: The War for the Holy Land (London, 2010) 等重头作品采取了不同的角度来探讨十字军。他们各自都进行了有力的概述,证明研究本领域的学术界健康而积极。十字军史学家中的翘楚是Jonathan Riley-Smith,他的The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading(London, 1986)至今仍为必读书目。他的其他众多概述十字军东征和单独讨论前往耶路撒冷的第一次远征的著作都价值非凡——The First Crusaders 1095-1131 (Cambridge, 1997) 尤其值得一提。John France的Victory in the East (Cambridge, 1994) 提供了关于这场前往耶路撒冷远征的极佳军事史作品。另可参考Thomas Asbridg所著的可读性极强的The First Crusade: A New History (London, 2005)。
关于安条克,参见Bernard Bachrach, 'The siege of Antioch: A study in military demography', War in History 6 (1999), pp. 127–46; John France, 'The departure of Tatikios from the Crusader army', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 44 (1971), pp. 137–47; Geoffrey Rice, 'A note on the battle of Antioch, 28 June 1098: Bohemund as tactical innovator', Parergon 25 (1979), pp. 3–8。Randall Rogers的Latin Siege Warfare in the 12th Century (Oxford, 1992) 是关于这一时期围城战的出色导引,尤其是关于尼西亚和安条克之战。
关于亚琛的阿尔伯特,参见Sue Edgington, 'Albert of Aachen reappraised', in Murray, From Clermont to Jerusalem, pp. 55–67. 另可参见Edgington's 'The First Crusade: Reviewing the evidence', in Phillips, First Crusade, pp. 57–77, and Marc Carrier's 'L'image d'Alexis Ier Comnène selon le chroniqueur Albert d'Aix', Byzantion 78 (2008), pp. 34–65. 参见R. Chazan, 'The Hebrew First Crusade Chronicles', Revue des Etudes Juives 133 (1974), pp. 235–54. 另见Hillenbrand's 'The First Crusade: The Muslim perspective', in Phillips, First Crusade, pp. 130–41.
与威尼斯的贸易作用十分关键,也得到了非常详尽的研究。Thomas Madden's 'The chrysobull of Alexius I Comnenus to the Venetians: The date and the debate', Journal of Medieval History 28 (2002), pp. 23–41非常出色,不过,我对授权文本内提供的证据存有很重要的疑点,关于日期也是,参见我的文章'Byzantine trade privileges to Venice in the eleventh century: The chrysobull of 1092', Journal of Medieval History 30 (2004), pp. 135–60。关于11世纪90年代其他事件的问题,均源于《阿莱克修斯纪》中编年存在的问题,参见我在'The Fall of Nicaea and the towns of western Asia Minor to the Turks in the later 11th Century: The curious case of Nikephoros Melissenos', Byzantion 76 (2006), pp. 153–84中,以及'Challenges to imperial authority in Byzantium: Revolts on Crete and Cyprus at the end of the 11th Century', Byzantion 74 (2004), pp. 382–402中提到的片段。
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